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Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users, modifying it as necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is a part of a company’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that store data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a collection of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type in the present. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change several databases.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple types of databases through different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability and other operational issues like the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and can also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.

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